哥伦比亚的 Cafeteritos – 25 Magazine, Issue 10

哥伦比亚的 Cafeteritos – 25 Magazine, Issue 10

如果咖啡种植业不能给小生产商提供稳定的经济保障的话,咖啡豆采摘业当然也不会继续发展下去,因此为了寻求更好的发展机会,许多住在Marsella Risaralda的年轻人搬到了其他城市,这并不是什么秘密。

摄影师 JUAN PÁEZ 问到: 如果这么多年轻人都到别的地方找工作以及接受教育的话,哥伦比亚的咖啡文化还有可能被保留下去吗?

自2011年起, Marsella Risaralda被联合国教科文组织列为哥伦比亚咖啡文化保护区的一部分, 这部分由6个景点以及安第斯山脉中部18个城市居住区组成。因为Antioquian居民在19世纪来到这个地方,渐渐地,这里的地理特征以及建筑排列变得越来越具有当地特色。在Marsella,咖啡不仅是一种外在景观的一部分,也是深深地植根于当地的文化传统。咖啡出现在 Marsella的建筑中;它也对社区集会以及社区庆祝的方式影响颇深。咖啡也成为食物以及音乐的一部分。

但文化差距在渐渐缩小:咖啡生产成本高涨、国际市场价格下跌、劳动力短缺以及气候变化的影响,促使年轻人到其他地方寻找更好的发展机会。并且为什么不去其他地方呢?除了根深蒂固的文化传统外,经济不稳定的惯例对当地社区发展有什么好处?

The billiard halls in Marsella are places of conversation where fresh coffee is never lacking. The town consumes an average of five cups of coffee per person per day.

Marsella 的台球厅是供人们聊天的地方,那里一直提供新鲜的咖啡。在这个城镇里,每人每天平均喝五杯咖啡。

The “jeepaos” are public transport to reach the most difficult corners of the surrounding coffee landscape. “The curling mountains and stone paths make it difficult to move people and coffee,” says Juan.

“jeepaos”是一种公共交通工具,这种交通工具可以让人们抵达最为偏僻的咖啡店去享用咖啡。Juan说,“因为这里有连绵起伏的山峦和蜿蜒的石头小路,所以顾客几乎挪不开脚,那些咖啡店也很难搬到其他地方。”

A picker walks the path through La Piscina (“The Pool”), the closest estate to Marsella. Its size and proximity to the town mean that many pickers like to work here.

一个采摘者穿过La Piscina(水池),这片地产距离Marsella最近。这里的咖啡豆种植园规模巨大,距离周边城镇也很近,因此许多咖啡豆采摘者喜欢在这里工作。

A child runs through the courtyard of the huge House of Marsella Culture to their band class. The building, which also houses a museum of Paisa culture, is a prime example of the local architectural typography, a fusion between Spanish cultural patterns and indigenous culture of the region adapted specifically for coffee production.

一个孩子穿过Marsella Cultureto的大房子的庭院,来到乐队教室。该建筑里面还有一个Paisa文化博物馆,是反映当地建筑排列特色的一个典型例子,这个房子融合了西班牙文化模式和该地区的土著文化,特别适合种植生产咖啡。

Maria Ángel Londoño, “Panchita,” has picked coffee for 75 of her 80 years. “She never had an education because her father was very conservative and demanded that daughters never intervene in society,” says Juan. She doesn’t think picking coffee is a good way to live, so she made sure her daughters received an education so that they wouldn’t need to “live what she had to live.”

Panchita的Maria Angel Londono在她80年的人生中,有75年都在采摘咖啡果实。Juan说,她从未受过教育,因为她的父亲是个非常保守的人,要求女儿永远都不要在社会上抛头露面。她不认为采摘咖啡是一种好的生活方式,所以她一定要保证她的女儿能接受教育,这样她们就不需要“过她那样的苦日子了。“

Coffee pickers start their workday from 5am, even when the sun hasn’t yet risen. An average adult picker will collect 80–100 kg a day, but the most skilled aim to collect more than 200 kg of cherry daily. Young pickers only reach 40–50 kg. For this, pickers will earn €49 (US$55) a week.

咖啡果实采摘工每天从早上5点就开始工作了,就算太阳没有升起,他们也得工作。一个普通的成年采摘工每天能采摘80—100公斤的咖啡果实,但是最熟练的采摘工的目标是每天采摘200公斤以上的咖啡果实。而年轻的采摘者每天只能采摘40 – 50公斤的果实。也就是说,年轻的采摘工每周将会获得49英镑(55美元)。

Noelba Garcia (55) and her daughter Manuela (14) pose for a portrait together. “Noelba tells me that the best thing she can teach Manuela is the ability to survive any adversity,” says Juan. When coffee prices fell in 2018, Noelba – a coffee picker – had to take on additional work in hotels and made chorizos (which sold well) to bolster her income. Despite this, her monthly salary doesn’t exceed €180 (US$200). Manuela is studying at an agricultural school, but she doesn’t enjoy working in the field. She doesn’t feel like she’s a part of the coffee community.

55岁的Noelba Garcia和14岁的女儿Manuela一起摆好了姿势准备拍照。Juan说:“Noelba告诉我,她能教给Manuela最好的东西就是让她学会在逆境中生存的能力。””当2018年咖啡价格下跌时,咖啡豆采摘工Noelba不得不在酒店做其他工作,她通过售卖自己做的西班牙辣香肠(卖得很好)来增加收入。尽管如此,她的月薪并没有超过180英镑(200美元)。Manuela在一所农业学校学习,但她不喜欢在田里工作。她不觉得自己是咖啡社区的一份子。

Julián Rosas teaches other children from Marsella’s troubled areas how to brew filter coffee, a skill he learned in the “Cafeteritos de Marsella” program of the Marsella Juega y Educa Foundation. Created by Spanish architect Javier Sánchez, the program encourages young people to explore and adopt the local coffee culture through games and science. Many of the program’s attendees dream of having their own business one day.

Julián Rosas教其他来自Marsella动乱地区的孩子们如何煮过滤咖啡,这是他在参加Marsella Juega y Educa基金会中的“Cafeteritos de Marsella”项目时所中学到的技能。该项目是由一位西班牙建筑师Javier Sanchez创建的,目的是鼓励年轻人通过游戏和科学来探索和接受当地的咖啡文化。许多参加这个项目的人都梦想有一天能拥有一家自己的公司。

Salomé López and Sofia Cortés are beneficiaries of the Marsella Juega y Educa Foundation, supported by coffee growers in the region. In the first year after its founding, the soccer school (Sonreír No Cuesta Nada, “Smiles are Free”) was first runner-up in the national championship.

Salome Lopez和Sofia Cortes是Marsella Juega y Educa基金会的受益者,该基金会是由该地区的咖啡种植者赞助的。在该基金会成立的第一年,足球学校(Sonreir No Cuesta Nada, Smiles are Free)首次取得了全国足球锦标赛的亚军。

JUAN PÁEZ是哥伦比亚 Bogotá 的一名自由摄影师。若想对他的作品了解更多,请看该摄影师邮箱@juanpaez83中的照片墙。

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